Meningkatkan Kepercayaan Publik Terhadap Pemerintah Melalui Redesain Proses Kebijakan

Lesmana Rian Andhika


This research article aims re-design the initial process of local-level policy. Mode simulation testing used to look beyond some concepts that can affect the initial policymaking process. The concept is policy diffusion and dynamic system model this concept was dug through the deductive by searching some of the scientific literature findings to the theme of research. The methods used to a model-building method, a way to reconstruct the theory by means of re-establishing various models. The model is derived from the theory, or simplify the concept or theory that involves the relationship between the concept of an internal concept. The results of this study reveal, the rising or declining public trust is also influenced by the policy. The new way is considered necessary due to the higher probability to produce a quality policy with simulate various concepts that are considered can translate a variety of phenomena in the form of public policy issues. When public distrust is increasing, then that response, and a warning to the government to put more effort into improving public trust through policy.


public trust, redesign, policymaking process

Full Text:



Aghion, P., Algan, Y., Cahuc, P., & Shleifer, A. (2010). Regulation and Distrust. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 125(3), 1015-1049. doi:10.3386/w14648

Anderson, J. E. (2015). Public Policymaking: An Introduction (8th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.

Attard, J., Orlandi, F., Scerri, S., & Auer, S. (2015). A Systematic Review of Open Government Data Initiatives. Government Information Quarterly, 32(4), 399-418. doi:10.1016/j.giq.2015.07.006

Autant-Bernard, C., Fadairo, M., & Massard, N. (2013). Knowledge Diffusion and Innovation Policies Within The European Regions: Challenges Based on Recent Emperical Evidence. Research Policy, 42(1), 196-210. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2012.07.009

Baybeck, B., Berry, W. D., & Siegel, D. A. (2011). A Strategic Theory of Policy Diffusion via Intergovernmental Competition. The Journal of Politics, 73(1), 232-247. doi:10.1017/S0022381610000988

Bender, K., Keller, S., & Willing, H. (2014). The Role of International Policy Transfer and Diffusion for Policy Change in Social Protection-A Review of the State of the Art. International Policy Learning and Policy Change: Scientific Inputs for the Dialogue on Social Protection with Global Partners (pp. 1-18). Bonn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH and Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences / International Centre for Sustainable Development (IZNE).

Bérard, C., Cloutier, L. M., & Cassivi, L. (2016). The Effects of Using System Dynamics-Based Decision Support Models: Testing Policy-Makers’ Boundaries in a Complex Situation. Journal of Decision Systems, 26(1), 45-63. doi:10.1080/12460125.2016.1204212

Bianco, W. T. (1994). Trust: Representatives and Constituents. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press.

Blind, P. K. (2006). Building Trust in Government int the Twenty-Firts Century: Review of Literature and Emerging Issues. 7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government Building Trust in Government (pp. 1-31). Vienna: United Nations.

Boushey, G. (2010). Policy Diffusion Dynamics in America. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Bovens, M., & Hart, P. (2016). Revisiting the Study of Policy Failures. Journal of European Public Policy, 23(5), 653-666. doi:10.1080/13501763.2015.1127273

Bozeman, B. (2000). Bureaucracy and Red Tape. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Braun, D., & Gilardi, F. (2006). Taking 'Galton's Problem Seriously: Towards Theory of Policy Diffusion. Journal of Theoretical Politics, 18(3), 298-322. doi:10.1177/0951629806064351

Caiden, G. E. (1991). What Really Is Public Maladministration? Public Administration Review, 51(6), 486-493.

Caiden, G. E. (2009). Administrative Reform. Chicago: Aldine Transaction.

Chanley, V. A., Rudolph, T. J., & Rahn, W. H. (2000). The Origins and Consequences of Public Trust in Government. Public Opinion Quarterly, 64(3), 239-256. doi:10.1086/317987

Chen, W. Y., & Hua, J. (2015). Citizens' Distrust of Government and Their Protest Responses in a Contingent Valuation Study of Urban Heritage Trees in Guangzhou, China. Journal of Environmental Management, 155, 40-48. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.03.002

Cheung, A. B. (2013). Public Governance Reform in Hong Kong: Rebuilding Trust and Governability. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 26(5), 421-436. doi:10.1108/IJPSM-05-2013-0070

Cierco, T. (2013). Public administration reform in Macedonia. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 46(4), 481-491. doi:10.1016/j.postcomstud.2013.08.002

Coyle, R. (1996). System Dynamics Modelling: A Practical Approach. New York: Springer-Science+Business Media.

Duggan, J. (2016). System Dynamics Modeling with R. Switzerland : Springer International Publishing.

Fähnrich, B. (2013). Integrating Concepts of International Governmental Communication A Framework for Further Research. Studies in Communication Sciences, 13(1), 15-23. doi:10.1016/j.scoms.2013.01.001

Fay, D. L., & Wenger, J. B. (2015). The Political Structure of Policy Diffusion. The Policy Studies Journal, 44(3), 349-365. doi:10.1111/psj.12122

Frederickson, et al. (2012). The Public Administration Theory Primer. Boulder: Westview Press.

Fukuyama, F. (1995). Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. New York, NY: Free Press.

Fuoli, M., & Paradis, C. (2014). A Model of Trust-Repair Discourse. Journal of Pragmatics, 74, 52-69. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2014.09.001

Gerston, L. N. (2010). Public Policy Making Process and Principles (3rd ed.). New York: M.E. Sharpe.

Gilardi, F. (2016). Four Ways We Can Improve Policy Diffusion Research. State Politics & Policy Quarterly, 16(1), 8-21. doi:10.1177/1532440015608761

Grindle, M. S. (1980). Politics and Policy Implementation in the Third World. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Grindle, M. S., & Thomas, J. W. (1989). Policy Makers, Policy Choices, and Policy Outcomes: The Political Economy of Reform in Developing Countries. Policy Science, 22(3-4), 213-248. doi:10.1007/BF00136320

Grimmelikhuijsen, S., & Knies, E. (2015). Validating a Scale for Citizen Trust in Government Organizations. International Review of Administrative Science, 0(0), 1-19. doi:10.1177/0020852315585950

Hacek, M., Kukovic, S., & Brezovsek, M. (2013). Problems of Corruption and Distrust in Political and Administrative Institutions in Slovenia. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 46(2), 255-261. doi:10.1016/j.postcomstud.2013.03.004

Hardin, R. (2002). Trust and Trustworthiness. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Hill, M. (2005). The Public Policy Process (4th ed.). Essex: Pearson Education.

Holzhacker, R. L., Wittek, R., & Woltjer, J. (2016). Decentralization and Governance in Indonesia. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing AG.

Jaccard, J., & Jacoby, J. (2010). Theory Construction and Model-Building Skills: A Practical Guide for Social Scientists. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Kay, A. (2006). The Dynamics of Public Policy: Theory and Evidence. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Kementrian Dalam Negeri. (2016, Juni 21). Unggah 3.143 Perda, Mendagri Berterimakasih ke Semua Pihak. Retrieved from Kementrian Dalam Negeri :

Kiani, B., & Pourfakhraei, M. A. (2010). A System Dynamic Model for Production and Consumption Policy in Iran Oil and Gas Sector. Energy Policy, 38(12), 7764-7774. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2010.08.036

Kim, S. (2010). Public Trust in Government in Japan and South Korea: Does the Rise of Critical Citizens Matter? Public Administration Review, 70(5), 801-810. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6210.2010.02207.x

Kim, S., & Han, C. (2014). Administrative Reform in South Korea: New Public Management and the Bureaucracy. International Review of Administrative Science, 0(0), 1-19. doi:10.1177/0020852314558034

Lenard, P. T. (2015). The Political Philosophy of Trust and Distrust in Democracies and Beyond. The Monist, 98(4), 353–359. doi:10.1093/monist/onv017

Lindstedt, C., & Naurin, D. (2010). Transparency is not Enough: Making Transparency Effective in Reducing Corruption. International Political Science Review, 31(3), 301-322. doi:10.1177/0192512110377602

Lindvall, J. (2011). The Political Foundations of Trust and Distrust: Reforms and Protests in France. West European Politics, 34(2), 296-316. doi:10.1080/01402382.2011.546575

Luenberger, D. G. (1979). Introduction to Dynamic System: Theory, Models and Applications. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Maggetti, M., & Gilardi, F. (2015). Problems (and Solutions) in the Measurement of Policy Diffusion Mechanisms. Journal of Public Policy, 00(0), 1-21. doi:10.1017/S0143814X1400035X

Marková, I., & Gillespie, A. (2012). Trust and Conflict: Representation, Culture and Dialogue. East Sussex: Routledge.

Meseguer, C., & Gilardi, F. (2009). What is New in the Study of Policy Diffusion? Review of International Political Economy, 16(3), 527-543. doi:10.1080/09692290802409236

Michels, A., & Graaf, L. D. (2010). Examining Citizen Participation: Local Participatory Policy Making and Democracy. Local Government Studies, 36(4), 477-491. doi:10.1080/03003930.2010.494101

Nicholson-Crotty, S., & Carley, S. (2016). Effectiveness, Implementation, and Policy Diffusion: Or “Can We Make That Work for Us?”. State Politics & Policy Quarterly, 16(1), 78-97. doi:10.1177/1532440015588764

OECD. (2016, 12 12). Trust in Government. Retrieved from OECD:

Ombudsman Republik Indonesia. (2016). Laporan Tahunan 2015. Jakarta: Ombudsman Republik Indonesia.

Oomsels, et al. (2016). Functions and Dysfunctions of Interorganizational Trust and Distrust in the Public Sector. Administration & Society, 1-29. doi:10.1177/0095399716667973

O'Toole, L. J. (1986). Policy Recommendations for Multi-Actor Implementation: An Assessment of the Field. Journal of Public Policy, 6(2), 181-210. doi:10.1017/S0143814X00006486

Peisakhin, L. (2012). Transparency and Corruption: Evidence From India. The Journal of Law & Economics, 55(1), 129-149. doi:10.1086/663727

Purwanto, E. A., & Sulistyastuti, D. R. (2015). Implementasi Kebijakan Publik; Konsep dan Aplikasinya di Indonesia (2nd ed.). Yogyakarta: Gava Media.

Rashedi, R., & Hegazy, T. (2015). Strategic Policy Analysis for Infrastructure Rehabilitation Using System Dynamics. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 12(6), 667-681. doi:10.1080/15732479.2015.1038723

Rindermann, H., Kodila-Tedika, O., & Christainsen, G. (2015). Cognitive Capital, Good Governance, and the Wealth of Nations. Intelligence, 51, 98-108. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2015.06.002

Rosanvallon, P. (2008). Counter Democracy: Politics in an Age Distrust. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Rosenbloom, D. H., O'Leary, R., & Chanin, J. (2010). Public Administration and Law (3rd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Rowell, D., & Wormley, D. N. (1997). System Dynamics: An Introdustion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Salminen, A., & Ikola-Norrbacka, R. (2010). Trust, Good Governance and Unethical Actions in Finnish Public Administration. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 23(7), 647-668. doi:10.1108/09513551011078905

Sayyadi, R., & Awasthi, A. (2016). A System Dynamics Based Simulation Model to Evaluate Regulatory Policies for Sustainable Transportation Planning. International Journal of Modelling and Simulation, 37(1), 25-35. doi:10.1080/02286203.2016.1219806

Saz-Carranza, A., & Serra, A. (2009). Institutional Sources of Distrust in Government Contracting. Public Management Review, 11(3), 263-279. doi:10.1080/14719030902798206

Shabbir, C. C., & Rondinelli, D. A. (2007). Decentralization Governance Emerging Concept and Practice. Washington DC: Brooking Institute Press.

Shipan, C. R., & Volden, C. (2008). The Mechanisms of Policy Diffusion. American Journal of Political Science, 52(4), 840-857. Retrieved from

Shipan, C. R., & Volden, C. (2012). Policy Diffusion: Seven Lessons for Scholars and Practitioners. Public Administration Review, 72(6), 788-796. doi:10.111/j.1540-6210.2012.02610.x.

Smith, K. B., & Larimer, C. W. (2009). The Public Policy Theory Primer. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Stewart, J. (2009). Public Policy Values. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Tambulasi, R. I., & Kayuni, H. M. (2007). Decentralization Opening a New Window for Corruption: An Accountability Assessment of Malawi’s Four Years of Democratic Local Governance. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 42(2), 163-183. doi:10.1177/0021909607074866

Tang, M., & Huhe, N. (2014). The Variant Effect of Decentralization on Trust in National and Local Governments in Asia. Political Studies, 64(1), 216-234. doi:10.1111/1467-9248.12177

Tholen, B. (2015). Citizen Participation and Bureaucratization: the Participatory Turn Seen Through a Weberian Lens. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 0(0), 1-19. doi:10.1177/0020852314548152

Tolbert, P. S. (2010, May 04). Robert Michels and the Iron Law of Oligarchy. Retrieved from Cornell University, ILR School:

Trägårdh, L. (2013). Commentary: The Politics of Distrust. Journal of Civil Society, 9(1), 100-104. doi:10.1080/17448689.2013.784503

Vincent, A. (2010). Modern Political Ideologies (3rd ed.). West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.

Volden, C., Ting, M. M., & Carpenter, D. P. (2008). A Formal Model of Learning and Policy Diffusion. The American Political Science Review, 102(3), 319-332. Retrieved from

Walker, J. L. (1969). The Diffusion of Innovations Among The American States. American Political Science Review, 63(3), 880-899. Retrieved from

Walle, S. V., & Bouckaert, G. (2003). Public Service Performance and Trust in Government: The Problem of Causality. International Journal of Public Administration, 26(8-9), 891-913. doi:10.1081/PAD-120019352

Walle, S. V., & Six, F. (2014). Trust and Distrust as Distinct Concepts: Why Studying Distrust in Institutions is Important. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 16(2), 158-174. doi: 10.1080/13876988.2013.785146

Walle, S. V., Roosbroek, S. V., & Bouckaert, G. (2008). Trust in the Public Sector: Is There Any Evidence for a Long-Term Decline? International Review of Administrative Science, 74(1), 47-64. doi:10.1177/0020852307085733

Wilkes, R. (2015). We Trust in Government, Just Not in Yours: Race, Partisanship, and Political Trust, 1958–2012. Social Science Research, 49(1), 356-371. doi:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2014.08.008



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Collaboration with:

Office: Jl. Halmahera Km. 1 Kota Tegal, Jawa Tengah. Indonesia | Phone. (0283) 323290 | Program Studi Ilmu Pemerintahan, Universitas Pancasakti Tegal